First Training school 17-18 september Milan
The first COST Training School took place on 17-18 September 2014 at the Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. Title of the Course: “Assessing human health and lifestyle by sewage epidemiology”
Welcome to participants
The participants were welcomed by Sara Castiglioni and Ettore Zuccato at the Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, in Milan. A brief introduction about the Institute research activity and the topics of Training School was given by Sara Castiglioni.
First Day “Molecular toxicology and human pharmacokinetics (including substance misuse)”
The first day activity was focused on pharmacokinetic and toxicology related to substance misuse and eight lectures were given.
Firstly, Jane Mounteney (European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction) presented the latest trends and developments in Europe’s drug situation and the responses which are being implemented. Jorgen Bramness (University of Oslo) lectures were focused on pharmacology and pharmaco-epidemiology of prescription drugs (such as antipsychotic drugs) with abuse potentials. Markus Meyer (University of Saarland) presented an overview of pharmacokinetic processes and focused on new tools to perform studies on drugs (and new drugs) metabolism. Barbara Karsprzyk-Hordern (university of Bath) gave a lecture on the pharmacokinetic relevance of enantiomeric profiling of chiral drugs in wastewater-based epidemiology and Christoph Ort (Eawag-Aquatic Research) on the current approaches used to estimate the number of inhabitants served by a sewage treatment plant and population dynamic (this lecture was scheduled originally for the second day, but it was anticipated for logistic reasons).
Finally, after lunch Luigi Cervo (Mario Negri Institute) presented several examples of long-lasting neuroplastic changes related to drug abuse and Sara Castiglioni (Mario Negri Institute) showed how pharmacokinetic studies can be used to identify potential environmental contaminants.
The afternoon was dedicated to visit the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Milano Nosedo, the biggest treatment plant in Milan that collects 50% of urban wastewater from the city.
Second day “Epidemiology (key topics: pharmaco-epidemiology, sewage epidemiology)”
The second day activity was focused on epidemiology and particularly on wastewater-based epidemiology and five lectures were given. Ettore Zuccato (Mario Negri Institute) described the sewage epidemiology approach including potentials, limitations and new applications. Caleb Banta-Green (University of Washington) presented how wastewater testing can be used for drug epidemiology and public health interventions and Sara Castiglioni (Mario Negri Institute) gave an overview of the applications of sewage epidemiology to estimate drug consumption in different communities published so far. Malcolm Reid (Norvegian Institute of Water Research) showed a new application of wastewater-based epidemiology to monitor alcohol consumption in a community and Renzo Bagnati (Mario Negri Institute) how steroids in wastewater can be used as markers of abuse.
Group Activity. The activity consisted in an exercise to estimate the use of a substance in different case studies including specific evaluation of sampling, pharmacokinetic profile of the substance and back-calculation of consumption. Each group voted a rapporteur and the results were shared in a final common presentation and discussion.